Noctuid moth do echolocate.
So far they are the only invertebrates proven to echolocate.
There are many more echolocating animals among vertebrates: the most-known are bats and dolphins. Two bird groups also employ echolocation for navigating through caves. Echolocating animals emit calls and listen to the echoes of those calls returning from various objects surrounding the animal. Echolocation is used for navigation and for hunting in various environments which are unfavourable for vision-based orientation while the animal moves rather fast. To estimate a distance to some object in the environment the animal meaures the time delay between the its own sound emission and an echo that returns from the object.
All echolocating vertebrates possess highly sophisticated auditory systems with complex neuronal structures.
Moths have the simplest ears known so far: two ears, only three neurons per one ear (six in total), two of them are the auditory receptors. Compare that to tens of thousands of receptors in mammals.
Despite of that moths have evolved their own echolocation system. As in bats, it is also based on ultrasonic signals.
The most interesting thing is that bats feed primarily on moths so they provide us with a model of predator and prey interactions, both of which use ultrasonic echolocation.
Here we describe